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Geographic Information Science (GIScience) is one of four key sub-disciplines within Geography (along with human geography, physical geography, and environment-society geography). Its primary areas of study include cartography (map making), remote sensing, and geographic information systems. Students who study GIScience learn how to use the latest tools and techniques to visually represent and analyze spatial data in order to understand and address real-world environmental and social problems. Applications of geographic information science range from emergency response to natural resource management to social policy analysis to location intelligence for business.